Step by Step Guide for Hajj and Umrah
Prepared by: Mohammed Baianonie, Imam of the Islamic Center of Raleigh, NC
Al-Eh-raam – Eh-raam is mandatory (waajib). Male pilgrims must take off their regular clothes and put on the two unstitched pieces of clothes (Ezaar and Redaa). They cannot wear shoes that cover the top of their feet. Female pilgrims can wear any loose-fitting decent dress covering the entire body except face and hands. During the state of Eh-raam, pilgrims (male and female) cannot trim or shave their hair, clip nails, use perfumes or colognes, kill or hunt animals, have sexual intercourse with the spouse, or have marriage proposals or contracts.
An-Niyyah - This is the intention to make Hajj. There can be three different types of intentions or niyyah:
- The intention to perform first Umrah then Hajj. This type of Hajj is called Tamattu', and is considered the best by Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal.
- The intention to perform Hajj only. It is called Efraad, and is considered the best by Imams Malik and Ash-Shafa’ee.
- The intention to perform Hajj and Umrah together. This is called Qiraan, and is considered the best by Imam Abu Hanifah.
Note: The niyyah has to be made at the place of Miqaat before entering the jurisdiction of Haram.
1. Hajj At-Tamattu’
When pilgrims reach Makkah, they circle the Ka’bah seven times. This is called Tawaaf al-Umrah. When finished with the Tawaaf, they pray two raka’t behind Maqamu Ebraaheem. Then they walk between Safa and Marwah seven times. Both of these actions are pillars of Umrah. Now it is mandatory (waajib) for males to trim or shave their hair and for females to trim only a fingertip-length of their hair. After this the pilgrims can wear regular clothes and engage in all actions that were prohibited during the Eh-raam.
On the 8th of Thel-Hijjah (before noon) male pilgrims put on their Eh-raam again in Makkah (women wear regular clothes), make intention for Hajj and begin reciting the Talbiyyah. Then all pilgrims go to Mina and spend the night there.
On the 9th of Thel-Hijjah the pilgrims go to Arafat. They stay there until sunset and then leave for Muzdalifah. They spend the night in Muzdalifah and after Salatul Fajr leave for Mina. Once in Mina, they throw seven pebbles at Jamraat al-Aqabah. The pilgrims then perform the mandatory (waajib) sacrifice of their animal. After that they trim or shave or clip their hair. This is also mandatory. Then they go to Makkah to perform Tawaaful Efaadah and make Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah. Both of these actions are pillars of Hajj. After this the pilgrims return to Mina, spend 3 or 4 nights there and throw pebbles at all the three Jamraats during Ayyamut-Tashreeq.
2. Hajj Al-Efraad
When pilgrims reach Makkah, they circle the Ka’bah seven times. It is called Tawaaful Qodoom. After this they pray two rak’at behind Maqamu Ebraaheem. Now they have the option to perform the Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah or delay it until after Tawaaful Efaadah, which is done upon leaving Mina. The pilgrims must stay Muhremeen (in the state of Eh-raam) until they have thrown seven pebbles at Jamraat al-Aqabah on Yaumun-Nahr (the Day of Eid al-Adha). For pilgrims of this kind it is not necessary to slaughter an animal. However, they must trim, shave or clip their hair. After Tawaaful Efaadah the pilgrims return to Mina to spend the night and throw pebbles at all the three Jamraats on Ayyamut-Tashreeq. After this they go to Attan’eem, which is the nearest point of Miqaat. Here they make the intention for Umrah and go back to Makkah to perform Tawaaf and pray two rak’at behind Maqamu Ebraaheem. Then they make Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah. After this they trim, shave or clip their hair again.
3. Hajj Al-Qiraan
Upon reaching Makkah the pilgrims make niyyah for Umrah and perform Tawaaf and Sa’ee. Then they go to Arafat and from there to Mina to throw pebbles at Jamraat al-Aqabah on Yaumun-Nahr (the Day of Eid al-Adha). After this they slaughter their animals and trim, shave or clip their hair. Then they go back to Makkah to perform the Tawaaf, pray two rak’at behind Maqamu Ebraaheem, and make the Sa’ee of Hajj.
Hajj can be performed in five or six days
Eighth day of Thel-Hijjah (Yamut-Tarweyah) – The Hajj starts on this day. Pilgrims leave Makkah after salatul Fajr for Mina. They spend the night in Mina. Spending the night in Mina is recommended.
Ninth day of Thel-Hijjah (Yaumu Arafah) – Pilgrims leave Mina after sunrise for Arafaat. They perform combined Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers at Zuhr time (Jam’t Taqdeem) behind the imam. Then they stand in Arafaat facing the Qiblah at the bottom of the mountain beside the big rocks. During this time they make supplications, praise Allaah (SWT) and ask for His forgiveness. They stay in Arafaat until sunset. This is the greatest pillar of Hajj.
Tenth day of Thel-Hijjah (Yaumun-Nahr) – Pilgrims leave Arafaat after sunset for Muzdalifah. There they perform combined Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers at ‘Isha time (Jam’t Taakheer). It is mandatory (waajib) for pilgrims to sleep in Muzdalifah that night. Next morning they pray salatul Fajr and go to Mina to throw pebbles at Jamraat al-Aqabah. It is mandatory to throw seven pebbles. These pebbles can be the size of a chickpea. Now pilgrims must slaughter their animals, if they have the intention to perform both Hajj and Umrah at the same time. After this the men trim or shave their hair. Women only clip a fingertip-length of their hair. At this time the pilgrims can do everything that was prohibited except that they still cannot approach their spouses. The pilgrims then return to Makkah and circle the Ka’bah seven times (Tawaaful Efaadah). This is a mandatory act and one of the pillars of Hajj. At this time the pilgrims are allowed to do everything which was prohibited during the state of Eh-raam, including sexual relationship with spouse. The pilgrims then return to Mina before sunset and stay there for most of the Eid days (Ayyamut-Tashreeq). This is mandatory according to the majority of the scholars.
Eleventh day of Thel-Hijjah (first day of At-Tashreeq) - Pilgrims throw seven pebbles at each of the three Jamraats. The time for stoning begins at Zuhr and ends at Fajr the next day.
Twelfth day of Thel-Hijjah (second day of At-Tashreeq) - The pilgrims stone the Jamraats again. Those who decide to go to Makkah do not have to stone the Jamraats next day as long as they leave Mina before sunset.
Thirteenth day of Thel-Hijjah (third day of At-Tashreeq) - Once again, pilgrims stone the Jamraats. Stoning comes to an end at sunset. The pilgrims then leave for Makkah.
Tawaaful Wada (Farewell Tawaaf)
The pilgrims circle the Ka’bah seven times and pray two raka’t behind Maqamu Ebraaheem. This tawaaf is mandatory (waajib) according to most of the scholars and it should be the last act before departing from Makkah.
(Prepared on February 25, 2000)
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