In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Important Rules of The Friday Prayer (1)

(Friday speech delivered by Imam Mohamed Baianonie at the Islamic Center or Raleigh, NC on February 4, 2000)

{This speech is summarized from the book "Fiqh us-Sunnah" by As-Sayyid Sabiq}


The Friday prayer as an obligation: The Muslim scholars are in agreement that salatul jum'ah (Friday prayer) is an individual obligation (and it is two rak'at.) Allah (S.W.T.) says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you but knew." And also Imam Abo Dawod reports an authentic hadith that the prophet (S.A.W.) said: "Al-Jumu'ah is a duty upon every Muslim in the community…"

Upon whom salatul jumu'ah (Friday prayer) is obligatory: salatul Jumu'ahis (Friday prayer) an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident Muslim who has the ability to attend the salah (prayer) and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul jumu'ah (Friday prayer), however, is not obligatory on the following:

    2. Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference of opinion.
    4. The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, or fears that his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whose recovery will be delayed. This also includes the person who is nursing a very ill person if, especially, the ill person cannot manage in the absence of the nursing person.
    5. Tariq Ibn Shihab reports that the prophet (S.A.W.) said: "Al-Jumu'ah is a duty
    6. upon every Muslim in the community, save four: a slave, or a woman, or a child, or a person who is ill." {Reprted by Imam Abu Dawud with a sahih (authentic) chain.}
    8. For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during the time of the begging of salatul jumu'ah (Friday prayer), it is not obligatory. This is based on the fact that the Prophet (S.A.W.) traveled and did not perform the salatul Jumu'ah (Friday prayer) but only prayed the zuhr and 'asr together during the time of the zuhr prayers. The caliphs after him and others also acted in a similar manner.
    10. One who is in debt and cannot repay his debt and therefore fears that he will be imprisoned, and who fears that he will be harmed by an oppressive ruler: Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: " Whoever hears the call to the salah and does not respond to it, there will be no prayer for him unless he has an excuse." The people inquired: " O Messenger of Allah, what is a valid excuse?" He answered: "Fear or illness." {Reported by Imam Abu Dawud with a sahih (authentic) chain.}
    12. Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on. Ibn 'Abbas said to the mu'adhdin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' but say: 'Prayer in your houses." The people objected to that and he told them: " One better than me did so (the prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)) Al-Jumu'ah is (Friday prayer) an obligation but I dislike that you should go out walking in the mud and slush." Abi Mahlih reports that his father had witnessed that day of Jumu'ah (Friday) with the Prophet and it was raining and the people were troubled by their shoes so he ordered them to pray in their stopping places. {Reported by Imams Abu Dawud and I bn Majah.}

All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah (prayer) although they are obliged to pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah (Friday prayer), it will still be valid for him or her and he will no longer be obliged to pray the zuhr. And the women during the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.), attended the mosque and used to pray al-jumu'ah with him.

The time of the Salatul jumu'ah (Friday prayer): The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) is the came as that of the zuhur. Imams Ahmed, Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Al Baihaqi record from Anas that the prophet (S.A.W.) would pray al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) when the sun had passed its meridian. Imams Ahmed and Muslim would pray al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) when the sun had passed its meridian. Imams Ahmed and Muslim record that salamah ibn al-akua' said: "We would pray salatul jumu'ah (Friday prayer) with the prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and when we returned from salah, we would be following our shadow."

The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to the end of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Imams Ahmed, Muslim and An-nasa'I who record from Jabir: "The prophet would pray al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) and then we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its Zenith." This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) before the sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of "Abduallah ibn Saiden as-Salmi who said: "We prayed al-jumuah (Friday prayer) with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it." This is related by Imam Ahmed, who cites it as a proof, and by Imams Ad-Daraqutni. Imam Ahmed adds: " And (something) similar to that all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that was like consensus.

The number of people required for al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer): There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for the validity of al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer). This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn shihab who reports that the prophet said: "Al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer) is an obligation upon every Muslim in

the community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer). There are fifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by Imam Ibn Hajar in his book "Fath Al-bari" The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah (Friday prayer) is valid if there are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."

Imam Ash-Shaukani says: "The other prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to jumu'ah salah (Friday prayer), unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence for show that (for the purpose of the congregation) its number should be larger than that for the other prayers. ' Abudul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmed hadith on the number of people needed for al-jumu'ah (Friday prayer). Similarly, Imam As-Sayuti holds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a particular number (for the jumu'ah salah (Friday prayer)).' "This is also the opinion of Imams At-Tabari, Dawud, an-Nakha'I, and Ibn hazm.

The place for al-Jumu'ah (Friday prayer): It is valid to perform the jumu'ah salah (Friday prayer) in any country, city, mosque, and building in a city, or in any space in a city as it is valid to have it preformed more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the jumu'ahj salah (Friday prayer) wherever you may be." This is related by Ibn Abi Shaibah. Imam Ahmed holds its chain to be good. This includes both the cities and countryside.

The Friday khutbah (speech):

Ruling concerning the Friday khutba (speech): The majority of the Muslim scholars are of the opinion that khutbahul jumu'ah (Friday speech)is obligatory and they support this by the confirmed ahadith which state that the Prophet always made the khutbah (speech) with the every jumu'ah (Friday). In their support they also quote the saying of the prophet: "Pray as you see me pray."

The greeting of the Imam: The Imam should greet the people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed by the adhan, which is to be made when he sits. The Imam should face the people during the adhan. Jabir reports that when the Prophet mounted the pulpit, he would greet the people. When the prophet walked to the top of the pulpit, he would turn to the people and say: "Assalamu Alikum."(Peace be with you), Abu Bakr and Umar used to do the same. " According to As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The adhan on Friday, the first one when the Imam sit on the pulpit, that was the practice in the time of the prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar. Then, during the time of "Uthman, since there were many people, he instituted a third adhan outside the mosque. The prophet only had one mu'adhdhin." This is related by Imams Al-Bukhari, An-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman, there were many people, so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call to salah (prayer) on the day of jumu'ah (Friday), outside of the mosque, and that practice has continued." Imams Ahmad and An-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the adhan to salah when the Prophet (S.A.W.) sat upon the pulpit, and he would make the iqamah when the prophet came down form the pulpit."

Contents of the khutbah: It is preferred that the Friday khutbah (speech) include praises of Allah, the Exalted, prayers upon the prophet, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.

In another hadith Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (S.A.W) said: "Every speech that does not begin with the praises of Allah is defective." {Reported by Imams Abu Dawud and Ahmed has something similar to it.}

In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutabah (speech) that does not contain the testimony ("There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger) is like the defective hand." {Reported by Imams Ahmed, Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi.}

Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony: "All praise be to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, no one will be able to mislead him. Whoever he leaves astray will have no guidance for him. And I testify that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger whom He sent with the truth and as a warner before the Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be guided aright, and whoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will not harm Allah, the Exalted, at all."

Ibn Shihab was asked about the Prophet's opening testimony during his speech on the day of the Jummah, and he said something similar to that except That he stated: "Whoever disobeys them has gone astray." {Imam Abu Dawud related both of thesis reports.}

Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver his speech standing, Would sit in between the two speeches, would recite some verses, and would remind the people [about Allah]." {Reported by the group, save Imams Al-Bukhari and At- Tirmidhi.}

Jabir also related that the Prophet S.A.W. would not make his admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short speech. {Reported by Imam Abu Dawud.}

Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an Nu'man says: " I learnt (suraht) "Qaf of the Glorius Qura'an" from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit every Friday when he addressed the people." {Reported by Imams Ahmed, Muslim, An-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawood.}

Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!…" (surat Az Zukhruf: 77). This is related by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Imam Ibn Majah records from Ubayy that the Messenger of Allah recited: "Blessed is He…" (surat Al-Mulk) on Friday while he was standing delivering his speech.

Posture during and between the speeches: It is proper for the Imam to stand for the speeches and to sit for a short while in between them.

Ibn 'Ummar said: "When the prophet (S.A.W.) would deliver the Khutbatul Jumu'ah (Friday speech), he did so standing, and then he would sit and then he would stand (again, for the second speech) as the people do today.' {Reported by the group.}


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Last Updated December 18, 2000 at 2:00 A.M. / ema